Like Iamgrowler said... throw out the old wax ring horn (black plastic piece) as that is not required here.
The pipe doesn't look deep enough for a twist and set flange to work so I'm thinking that you will be better off installing closet flange extenders
(comes as a kit most of the time) for your situation... see images. There are a few different kind... I do NOT
recommend using spacers without the neoprene or foam gaskets!
Here, clean the old flange extra well and remove the old closet bolts. Then you will install the spacers as directed on the package, but you will also need extra long closet bolts. The extra long closet bolts
will insert through the bottom flange (present now) slots and then through the other spacers slots as well.
Click on the closetflange2.pdf file to see this all up close...
You can install so the flange is flush with the tile or even better on top of the tile... either works fine. If you go flush with the tile use an extra thick or a reinforced wax ring. Otherwise, a wax ring with horn is best bet.
Let me know if you have questions...